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What is methyl orange

Methyl orange is an intensely colored compound used in dyeing and printing textiles. It is also known as C.I. Acid Orange 52, C.I. 13025, helianthine B, Orange III, Gold orange, and Tropaeolin D .
Chemists use methyl orange as an indicator in the titration of weak bases with strong acids. It changes from red (at pH 3.1) to orange-yellow (at pH 4.4):

pH-related color changes result from changes in the way electrons are confined in a molecule when hydrogen ions are attached or detached. Here is the structure of methyl orange in acidic solution:

methyl orange

Methyl orange in acidic solution.
The molecule absorbs blue-green light, which makes its solution appear red. Notice that the nitrogen bearing the positive charge is involved in a double bond.
In the basic form of methyl orange, a hydrogen ion is lost from the -NN- bridge between the rings, and the electrons formerly used to bind the hydrogen neutralize the positive charge on the terminal nitrogen, so that it is no longer able to pi-bond. Solutions of the methyl orange appear yellow in alkaline solution


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