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Spectrophotometric determination of hafnium with xylenol orange

Hafnium reacts similarly to zirconium with Xylenol Orange. The hafnium-Xylenol Orange complex shows almost identical maximum absorption as the zirconium-Xylenol Orange complex at 53 5-540 mμ.
The reagent gives a more sensitive reaction with hafnium than with zirconium. The molar absorption of the hafnium-Xylenol Orange complex was found to be 48,700 at 540 mμ. The formation constant of the hafnium complex was calculated as 3.2 × 106 in 0.3N perchloric acid. The conditions for using Xylenol Orange as a reagent for determining hafnium have been studied. Only zirconium or hafnium gives a purplish-red colour reaction with Xylenol Orange in 0.8.N perchloric acid in the presence of hydroxylamine hydrochloride, which masks both iron and bismuth.
Hafnium may be distinguished from zirconium since zirconium can be masked by hydrogen peroxide. Beryllium may be used as a demasking agent in the determination of zirconium or hafnium in the presence of fluoride.


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